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Mental health in Cambodia

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Current issues

  • Radio Free Asia Cambodia feed
  • Psychology & Developing Societies
  • Journal of Conflict Resolution


Post trauma

  • Eisenbruch, M. (2007) The uses and abuses of culture: Cultural competence in post-mass-crime peace-building in Cambodia. In: (Pouligny, B., Schnabel, A., Chesterman. S, eds.). Mass Crime and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, (Center for International Studies and Research, Paris, International Peace Academy, New York, and United Nations University/Peace and Governance Programme (Tokyo). Tokyo and New York: United Nations University Press. Pp.71-96.

Techniques, measures, interviewing

  •  Eisenbruch, M. (1990). The cultural bereavement interview: A new clinical and research approach with refugees. Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 13(4), 715-35.
  • Eisenbruch, M. (1990). Classification of natural and supernatural causes of mental distress. Development of a Mental Distress Explanatory Model Questionnaire. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178(11), 712-19.

PTSD and cultural bereavement

  •  From post-traumatic stress disorder to cultural bereavement. In: Forced Migration: Development and the Refugee Crisis (Margriet Poppema and Wim Schoeman., eds.). University of Amsterdam: Institute for Development Research, pp.427-434.
  • Eisenbruch, M. (1998). From post-traumatic stress disorder to cultural bereavement. In: The Art of Medical Anthropology. Readings. (Sjaak van der Geest, & Adrei Rienks, ed.). pp.251-260. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.
  • Eisenbruch, M., de Jong, J., van de Put, W., (2004). Bringing order out of chaos: Identification, management and prevention of psychosocial and mental health problems of refugees and victims of organized violence within primary care. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17(2), 123-131.

Taxonomy and diagnosis

  • Eisenbruch, M. (1991). From post-traumatic stress disorder to cultural bereavement: Diagnosis of Southeast Asian refugees. Social Science and Medicine, 33(6), 673-80.
  • Eisenbruch, M. (1992). Towards a culturally sensitive DSM: Cultural bereavement in Cambodian refugees and the traditional healer as taxonomist. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181(1), 8-10.


  • Eisenbruch, M. (1992). The ritual space of traditional healing in Cambodia. Bulletin d'École Française d'Extrême-Orient. 79(2), 283-316.
  • Lemoine, J. and Eisenbruch, M. (1997) L'exercice du pouvoir de guérison chez les chamanes hmong et les maîtres-guérisseurs khmers  d'Indochine [The practice of the power of healing among the Hmong shamans and the Cambodian traditional healers in Indo-China]. L’Homme, 144, 69-103.

Global perspectives

  • Eisenbruch, M. (1994). Mental health and the Cambodian traditional healer for refugees who resettled, were repatriated or internally displaced, and for those who stayed at home. Collegium Antropologicum, 18(2), 219-230.
  •  Eisenbruch, M. (1997). The cry for the lost placenta: Cultural bereavement and cultural survival among Cambodians who resettled, were repatriated, or who stayed at home  In: Home is Where the Heart is: The Psychological Aspects of Permanent and Temporary Geographical Moves. (Miranda van Tilburg and Ad Vingerhoets, eds.). Tilburg: Tilburg University Press. pp. 119-142.

Childhood disorders

  • Eisenbruch, M. (1998). Cambodian techniques to prevent and treat failure to thrive, childhood epilepsy, and STD/AIDS. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 3(4), 503-515. 20.  


  • Femmes, enfants et guérisseurs khmers face au Sida (2000). In: Sociétés Asiatiques face au Sida (Laurence Husson and Marie-Eve Blanc, eds.). pp.341-366. Paris: Editions l’Harmattan.
  • Eisenbruch, M. (2000). Cambodian concepts of perinatal mental disorder: Relevance to understanding Western approaches to perinatal mental health. Chapter 9. In: Anthropological Approaches to Psychological Medicine (Vieda Skultans and John Cox, eds.). London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers. pp. 201-232.

Psychiatric services


  • Eisenbruch, M. (2004). Khmer Rouge and traditional healers as medical anthropologists? Retooling health and social justice in Cambodia. Bulletin of the Royal Institute for  Inter-Faith Studies (BRIIFS), 5(1), Spring/Summer.
  • Eisenbruch, M. (1995) The healer in traditional societies: The example of Cambodia. Talking Medicine,  6(3), 60-64.
  •  Eisenbruch, M. (1998). Adjust your mind set: culture and psychiatry. The Health Exchange (London), December, 14-15. 21. 
  • Eisenbruch, M. (with Bertrand, D., Chey, S.O., Chhim, S., Chhoun, T., Glamcevski, M., Huot, K.C., Im, K., Kang. O., Kea, K.R., Lim, K., Kruy, K.H., Lay, S.N., Lor, M., Nhong, S., Nhong, H., Poch., B., Sek, S.S., Som, C. S., Srun, H.). Psychology Dictionary. Phnom Penh: PPU-CANDO (Publication funding United States Agency for International Development, Grant No. 442-018-G-00-2380-00).

  • Eisenbruch, M. (1999). Culture and illness – Clinical presentation and management of somatoform disorders in Cambodia. In: Somatoform Disorders: A Worldwide Perpsective (Yutaka Ono, Aleksander Janca, Masahira Asai, Norman Sartorius, eds.). pp. 153-162. Tokyo: Springer-Verlag.
  • Eisenbruch, M. (2000) Eastern religions and philosophies. In: Encyclopedia of Psychology (ed. Alan E. Kazdin). Washington D.C. and New York: American Psychological Association and Oxford University Press.

  • van de Put, W. and Eisenbruch, M. Cambodia. (2002) The Cambodian Experience. Chapter 2. In: (de Jong, J. T. V. M., ed). Trauma, War and Violence: Public Mental Health in Socio-Cultural Context. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. pp. 93-156.
  • van de Put, W. and Eisenbruch, M. (2004). Healing trauma in Cambodian communities. In: (Miller, K. and Rasco, L). From Clinic to Community: Ecological Approaches to Refugee Mental Health.  Chapter 4. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp.133-159.